Xindong Song

Kavli Distinguished Postdocctoral Fellow (2017)


  • PhD, Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore USA
  • MS, Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing CHINA
  • BS, Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing CHINA

Research Interest

  • Perception and cortical processing of complex sounds (e.g. pitch perception)
  • Functional organization of the primate auditory cortex at the meso- and micro- scales
  • Multisensory integration of social-communication related information in the primate cortex
  • Advanced optical imaging development for studying cortical functions in awake primates
  • Bridging optical engineering and genetically encoded labeling in primates

Current Projects

  • Development of a multi-scale optical imaging pipeline for mapping cortical functions in awake marmosets
    1. Develop a through-skull optical imaging paradigm to map functional landscapes composed of multiple cortical areas across sensory modalities in awake marmoset monkeys.
    2. Create through-skull-imaging guided procedures for implanting cranial windows to precisely cover the entire auditory cortex on marmoset brain surface.
    3. Advance wide-field imaging approaches to map functional architectures in marmoset auditory cortex through intrinsic optical signal and calcium signal.
    4. Design and built a silent-scanning two-photon microscope for imaging neuronal activities in marmoset auditory cortex without acoustic artifacts.
  • Meso- & Micro-scale Functional Architecture of the “Pitch Center” in Marmosets:
    Apply through-skull and windowed functional imaging approaches to map cortical landscapes for processing pitch through spectral and temporal mechanisms.
    Utilize silent-scanning two-photon microscopy to study cortical pitch processing at the single-neuron level.
  • Pitch Perception Mechanisms in Marmosets
    Use operant conditioning tasks to reveal cognitive mechanisms for pitch perception in marmosets.


  • Song X, Guo Y, Chen C, Wang X. A silent two-photon imaging system for studying in vivo auditory neuronal functions. Light: Science and Applications. 2022 Apr 14;11(1):1-3. [web] [pdf]
  • Song X, Guo Y, Li H, Chen C, Lee JH, Zhang Y, Schmidt Z, Wang X. Mesoscopic landscape of cortical functions revealed by through-skull wide-field optical imaging in marmoset monkeys. Nature Communications. 2022 Apr 26;13(1):1-9. [web] [pdf]
  • Song, Xindong, Michael S. Osmanski, Yueqi Guo, and Xiaoqin Wang. "Complex pitch perception mechanisms are shared by humans and a New World monkey." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, no. 3 (2016): 781-786. [web] [pdf]
  • Osmanski, Michael S., Xindong Song, Yueqi Guo, and Xiaoqin Wang. "Frequency discrimination in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)" Hearing Research (2016). [web] [pdf]
  • Osmanski, Michael S., Xindong Song, and Xiaoqin Wang. "The role of harmonic resolvability in pitch perception in a vocal nonhuman primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)." The Journal of Neuroscience 33, no. 21 (2013): 9161-9168. [web] [pdf]
  • Pan, L., Song, X., Xiang, G., Wong, A., Xing, W., Cheng, J., et al. (2009). First-spike rank order as a reliable indicator of burst initiation and its relation with early-to-fire neurons. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 56(6), 1673-82. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2009.2015652.
  • Xiang, G., Pan, L., Huang, L., Yu, Z., Song, X., Cheng, J., et al. (2007). Microelectrode array-based system for neuropharmacological applications with cortical neurons cultured in vitro. Biosensors and bioelectronics, 22(11), 2478-84. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2006.09.026.
  • Bian, C., Song, X., Liu, Z., & Zhang, H. (2005). Design proposal of imaging activities of cultured neural network on a silicon substrate with neural-electronic-optical integrated microsystem. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 7, 7600-3. doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2005.1616271.